256 JPLORA JNDICA. northern slope of the Safed Koh range, which bounds the valley of the Kabul river on the south, it being lofty, and snow- clad almost throughout the year. The pines are Pinus exceha and Gerardiana, Abies Smithiana, and Cedrus Deodttra: of these the deodar appears to be the most abundant. In thcj temperate zone Juniperus excelsa is of occasional ociun'rencc. The oak of these forests is Quercus Ilex, a species which ex- tends from the south of Europe as far as Kunawar. With thetoak; species of JEsculus, Olea, Myrtus, and Amyydahw occur. In the tropical zone, which skirts the whole region, the plants are the same as those of Sind and the Panjab, which again are identical with those of tropical Arabia and of south Persia. A few scattered pistacias, with Celtis and Dodon&a, are almost the only trees; though in some ^alleys there are small woods of Populus Euphratica. The dale is cultivated in Bduchistan and Southern Afghanistan up to 4500 feet, and a dwarf palm (Cham&rops Ritchieana of Griffith,, perhaps identical with the Gham&rops humilis of Europe) occui's abun- dantly in many places, but with a somewhat local distribu- tion. Above 4000 feet, or a little higher in Beluchistan, the tropical gives place to the true oriental flora. Aromatic shrubs, chiefly Artemisia and Labiate, cover the plains, and prickly Statice and Astragali abound on the dry .hills. Cruci- fer&, Umbellifera, Boraginea, Cynaracea, and Cichoracea are extremely abundanfe far more so than in India; ^ith Rosa, Lycium, Berberis, and other Syrian shrubs. In early spring there is here, as in the Mediterranean region, an extremely luxuriant vegetation, and the genera, if not the species, are the' same. Hyacinthus, Lilium, Tulipa, Fritittaria, Narcissus, CoteMcumi Jxiolirion, Anemone, and Delphinium may be men- tioned as instances. In many places the soil is saline, and the Chenopodiaceq mentioned as natives of Tibet, as well as Ct&u* abundant.